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Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and dark septate fungi in plants associated with aquatic environments 1.0

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There have been several reports of symbionts in the roots of plants that live in aquatic environments. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are the most common microsymbionts and possibly recolonized the aquatic environment together with plants; however, their functions and the extent of their benefits are unclear. Furthermore, the presence of other groups of fungi, such as dark septate fungi (DSF), with functions supposedly analogous to those of mycorrhizal fungi, has also been reported. The present work provides a compilation of data regarding the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizae in plants from, or under the influence of, aquatic environments, and co-colonization by AMF and DSF. Forty species of non-vascular plants, ferns, fern allies, and gymnosperms from 15 families, and 659 species of angiosperms from 87 families were investigated. From the first group (non-flowering plants) 57 % of the species showed arbuscular mycorrhizal structures in their tissues or roots, whereas among the second group (flowering plants) 71 % had such structures. Among the mycorrhizal angiosperms, 52 % showed arbuscules in their roots. DSF were found in 1 % of non-flowering plants and 5 % of angiosperms. All of these are discussed in this review.

Keywords: colonization, flooding, fungal co-occurrence, macrophytes, taxonomic diversity
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